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Crypto Privacy Tools: What Are They And How Do They Work?

Vitalik Buterin, one of Ethereum’s creators, published a research paper about making blockchain transactions more private and adhering to government regulations. This project brought together various experts, including Ameen Soleimani from Tornado Cash, Jacob Illum from Chainalysis, and researchers from the University of Basel.

Buterin’s paper proposes a method called “Privacy Pools” that can be a guideline to enhance the privacy of user transactions in the crypto space.

Privacy Pools And How They Work

Buterin and his co-authors describe Privacy Pools as a method to protect transaction privacy. Users can demonstrate to regulators the sources of their funds.

The protocol makes use of techniques such as zero-knowledge proofs. These cryptographic methods enable one party to demonstrate knowledge of specific information to another without disclosing any specifics.


This contributes to the legitimacy of transactions and ensures they are not associated with criminal actions. Users can generate a zero-knowledge proof when they withdraw funds from the Privacy Pool.

This proof serves two purposes: it validates the user’s transaction and ensures it does not connect to a blockchain address linked to criminal enterprises. Also, it protects users’ privacy by keeping their identities hidden.

One practical aspect of Privacy Pools is the “Association Set.”

Association Set

The concept of association, which is a part of addresses within a crypto pool, is vital to privacy pools. When users leave the pool, they select which association set they want to utilize.

These sets are designed to include only “good” depositor addresses while excluding “bad” ones. The goal of association sets is to maintain anonymity.

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Withdrawn funds cannot be precisely traced back to their origin, but they can be proven to be of noncritical origin. These collections are created by association set providers (ASPs), trusted third parties.

They use blockchain analytics tools and technologies in anti-money laundering and transaction analysis to analyze and evaluate contributing wallets. Association sets are created through two processes: inclusion and exclusion proofs.

Inclusion, or membership, is a way of making a positive selection related to creating a “good” list. This implies carefully examining options and identifying those with clear evidence of being secure and low-risk.

Conversely, exclusion entails making a decision based on negative standards akin to collecting a “bad” list. Thus, ASPs assess various options and identify risky or unsafe ones. They then compile a list of all deposits except those classified as risky.

Regulatory Issues

Recent developments in the blockchain industry have highlighted the critical need for privacy and compliance solutions. Recently, the US government sanctioned Tornado Cash, a cryptocurrency mixing service, for allegedly facilitating transactions for the North Korean state-backed hacking group Lazarus.

This action indicated that the United States government was increasing its scrutiny of privacy-focused crypto services and platforms since some are being utilized for illicit purposes. Governments worldwide are grappling with balancing innovation with safeguards against the illegal usage of virtual currencies and decentralized applications.

Analysts opine that regulators will tilt the balance of privacy and oversight in their favor unless participants in the blockchain sector actively develop appropriate privacy-focused tools.

Expert’s Reactions

Seth Simmons, also known as Seth For Privacy and the host of the privacy-focused podcast Opt Out, used Tornado Cash as an example to highlight the uphill battle these platforms face in their efforts to comply with regulatory standards.

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Despite Tornado Cash’s efforts to exceed regulatory expectations and embrace compliance to the greatest extent possible, Simmons claimed that the authorities weren’t satisfied. Simmons argued that governments are driven by an insatiable appetite for total surveillance rather than seeking a delicate balance between compliance and privacy.

Simmons’ observations provide a holistic analysis of the challenges of decentralized projects despite their best efforts to comply. In his view, the concept is technically interesting because it reduces the amount of data given to regulated entities.

However, Simmons stressed that authorities still want complete visibility into users’ actions and how they spend their money.

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Bradley Nelson

Bradley Nelson is a US based cryptocurrency news writer for Tokenhell, he helps readers stay up to date with the latest trends and news from the blockchain and crypto world. Bradley has been a crypto enthusiast since 2018.

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